Perceived Stress Scale Applied to College Students: Validation Study

Juliana Chioda Ribeiro Dias, Wanderson Roberto Silva, João Maroco, Juliana Alvares Duarte Bonini Campos


Aim: To present a Portuguese (post-orthographic agreement) version of Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and estimate its validity and reliability in Brazilians female college students.
Method: The face and content validity were estimated. Confirmatory factor analysis (n = 1081) was conducted and the goodness-of-fit indices used were the chi-square by degrees of freedom ratio (χ²/df), the Comparative Fit Index (CFI), the Normed Fit Index (NFI) and the Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA). The stability of the best model for independent samples was verified by multigroup analysis and the invariance by difference of chi-squares (Δχ²) for factor weights (λ), covariance between factors (Cov), and residues (Res). The convergent validity was estimated by the Average Variance Extracted (AVE) and Composite Reliability (CR). The concurrent and divergent validity of PSS were estimated by Pearson’s correlation analysis (r) with the Weight Concerns Scale and the Maslach Burnout Inventory, respectively. The internal consistency was estimated by standardized Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (α).
Results: The 10-item version (PSS-10) showed better fit to the sample (χ²/df = 10.69; CFI = .90; GFI = .93; RMSEA = .09). The convergent validity was below recommended (AVE = .34; CR = .84). The internal consistency (α = .83) was adequate. The structure was stable in the independent sub-samples. The concurrent and divergent validity were adequate.
Conclusion: The PSS-10 presented adequate validity, reliability and stability in independent samples of university students.


stress; validation studies; reliability; psychometrics; college students; young adults