Lifestyles and Stress According to Self-Kindness and Goal Directedness Among Drivers

Misa Shimpo, Rie Akamatsu, Hirofumi Sakurazawa


Aim: Home delivery drivers are particularly likely to have unhealthy lifestyles and high stress because of their unusually strenuous work. This study identified differences in their lifestyles and stress according to self-kindness and goal directedness. Methods: Participants were drivers from a western Tokyo branch of a large company that included a Japanese transportation business. A total of 407 drivers completed a questionnaire including items about self-kindness from the Self-Compassion Scale, goal directedness from the Japanese Experiential Time Perspective Scale, stress responses, and job stress; data from 362 male drivers were analyzed, mean age = 41.87 years (SD = 7.8). Participants were divided into four groups based on these scores: high self-kindness and high goal directedness (HS/HG), low self-kindness and high goal directedness (LS/HG), high self-kindness and low goal directedness (HS/LG), and low selfkindness and low goal directedness (LS/LG). Responses were compared among groups using Kruskal–Wallis test, Bonferroni’s multiplecomparison test, and χ2 test. Results: Median fatigue, anxiety, and depression scores differed significantly among the four groups. More drivers with HS/HG than with LS/LG reported feeling rested because of sleeping well. Discussion: Home delivery drivers with high self-kindness and high goal directedness exhibited restful sleep and lower levels of stress responses. Home delivery drivers should work on and manage both self-kindness and goal directedness, which employers should also facilitate.


self-kindness; goal directedness; health behaviours; stress; home delivery drivers