Study of the Factorial Invariance of the Spiritual Well-Being Questionnaire (SWBQ) in Physical Activity Practitioners’ of Oriental Inspiration

Maria João Gouveia, José Luís Pais-Ribeiro, Marta Marques


Aim: Spiritual Well-being (SWB) is a concept influenced by cultural factors. The aim of the present study was to analyze the factorial validity of the Portuguese version of the Spiritual Well-being Questionnaire (SWBQ; Gomez & Fisher, 2003) in physical activities that are inspired by eastern values (e.g. tai-chi). Method: The sample consisted of 342 participants of yoga (31%), tai-chi (32%), shorinji-kempo (30%) and active meditation (7%), of both genders (53% F) and with experience on the respective exercise modality (M = 3.9; DP = 6.1 yrs.). Results: The adjustment indices of the Confirmatory Factor Analysis for both the four-factor structure and the second-order model were less favourable in the present study than the adjustment indices previously obtained with the general population (Gouveia et al., 2009). The refined models fit the data adequately. Internal consistency and composite reliability were good for each of the four SWB factors, and the total SWB mean variance extracted was acceptable. Multi-group analysis supported only factor loadings equivalence between exercise groups. Conclusion: These results contribute substantially to the validation of the Portuguese version of the SWBQ. Moreover, the results obtained confirm the possible effect of cultural norms when the questionnaire is answered, and point out the importance of reformulating some of the translated items in order to increase validity.


spiritual well-being; psychometric properties; physical activity