Adaptation and development of a Parenting Behaviours Inventory

Pedro Alexandre Costa, Henrique Pereira, Isabel Leal


Aim: The purpose of the present study was to develop a Portuguese version of a Parenting Behaviour Inventory. This inventory aims to evaluate the frequency of different parenting practices and behaviours, classified into two dimensions of Positive Parenting and Oppressive Parenting. Method: Participants (253 mothers and 92 fathers) responded to an online questionnaire which consisted of this inventory, a scale of depression stress and anxiety, and a questionnaire of health and mental health related problems in the household. Results: Confirmatory factor analysis of the inventory revealed evidence of a solid model of nine behavioural dimensions, as well as of a second-order model consisting of a positive and an oppressive parenting dimension. Significant positive associations were found between the adoption of ineffective or oppressive childrearing behaviours with health and mental health problems; and negative associations between these problems and positive childrearing behaviours. It was also found that fathers tended to use more disciplinary and inconsistent disciplinary behaviours when they had children of both genders. Conclusion: Considering the lack of instruments to evaluate parenting practices in Portugal, this can be an important measure to assess the relationship between parenting behaviours and child behaviour problems.


parenting behaviour; childrearing practices; child development